Application: Bubbles rising through a layer of Carbopol capped with water using Fusion 200 Syringe Pump

2.1. Experimental setup.

The experiments were conducted in a 61 cm tall column of 8.2 cm square cross-section (Fig. 2). The base was sealed except for a 1.0 mm diameter hole through which an injection needle was inserted. The injection needle had an internal diameter of 0.6 mm. Air was injected through the needle by a Chemyx Fusion 200 syringe pump. The column was filled with a 25.4 cm layer of Carbopol capped with a 25.4 cm layer of water. To assist visualization the Carbopol was dyed pink, and the water blue. A Lumix GH4 camera, capable of operating at 96 frames per second with a resolution of 1920 × 1080 pixels, was placed in front of the column.

Carbopol EZ-2 (Lubrizol) solutions, mixed at different concentrations, were used for the lower layer. Due to their insignificant thixotropy these solutions exhibit ideal yield stress fluid behavior [17]. It is also useful experimentally due to its transparency. The solutions were prepared using the method described in Zare and Frigaard [13]. To achieve the desired concentration, a small amount of Carbopol EZ-2 was mixed with water and then neutralized by stirring in an appropriate amount of 0.1 g/l of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) for 24 h. The Carbopol/NaOH weight ratio was 3.5:1. The rheological properties of the fluid are set by the concentration and pH of the solution. To avoid thixotropic and evaporation effects, a new batch of Carbopol was made for each experiment, using identical preparation protocols.

Fig. 2. (a) Sketch of experimental setup. (b) Image of experimental setup.

Read the Full Article Here: Bubbles rising through a layer of Carbopol capped with water

Date Published: Received 15 August 2021, Revised 15 November 2021, Accepted 16 November 2021, Available online 5 December 2021, Version of Record 17 December 2021.

Authors: K.ZhaoE.W.TedfordM.ZareI.A.FrigaardcG.A.Lawrencea

aDepartment of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, 6250 Applied Science Ln, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
bDepartment of Mathematics, University of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada
cDepartment of Mathematics and Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2324 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada

 

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